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In 1880, Indianapolis was the world's third largest pork packing city, after Chicago and Cincinnati, and the second largest railroad center in the United States by 1888.Some of the city's most notable businesses were founded during this period of growth and innovation, including L. Ayres (1872), Eli Lilly and Company (1876), Madame C. Walker Manufacturing Company (1910), and Allison Transmission (1915).Indianapolis is home to two major sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League.The city's philanthropic community has been instrumental in the development of its cultural institutions and collections, including the world's largest children's museum, nation's largest privately funded zoo, historic buildings and sites, and public art.At its height, more than 40% of native-born white males in Indianapolis claimed membership in the Klan. Kennedy delivered one of the most lauded speeches in 20th century American history, following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. A 1971 federal court decision forcing Indianapolis Public Schools to implement desegregation busing proved controversial.
The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the Mc Cormick or Pogue families.Anchoring the 25th largest economic region in the U.S., the city's economy is based primarily on finance and insurance, manufacturing, professional and business services, education and health care, government, and wholesale trade.Clockwise from top: Downtown Indianapolis, Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Indianapolis 500, Indiana Statehouse, Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, Depew Memorial Fountain and Indiana World War Memorial Plaza, and Butler University is the capital and most populous city of the U. With an estimated population of 855,164 in 2016, Indianapolis is the third most populous city in the Midwest and 15th most populous in the U. The city is the economic and cultural center of the Indianapolis metropolitan area, with 2,004,230 residents, the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,386,199.
It is in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States.Indianapolis covers 368 square miles (950 km), making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to approximately 2000 BC.In 1818, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Completion of the National Road and the advent of the railroad later solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub.Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847.