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Jordan remains to be considered as among the safest of countries in the Middle East, even after the deteriorating situation of the region following the Arab spring in 2010s.Jordan prides itself on being an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region.In the midst of surrounding turmoil, it has been greatly hospitable, accepting refugees from almost all surrounding conflicts as early as 1948.
The country is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.
These nomads spoke Arabic and wrote in Nabataean alphabets, which were developed from Aramaic script during the 2nd century BC, and are regarded by scholars to have evolved into the Arabic alphabet around the 4th century AD.
Later under Roman rule, these cities joined other Hellenistic cities in Palestine and Syria to form the Decapolis League, a loose confederation linked by economic and cultural interests: Scythopolis, Hippos, Capitolias, Canatha and Damascus were among its members.
Under Umayyads rule, several desert castles were constructed, such as: Qasr Al-Mshatta, Qasr Al-Hallabat, Qasr Al-Kharanah, Qasr Tuba, Qasr Amra, and a large administrative palace in Amman.
Jordan's location lies on a pilgrimage route taken by Muslims going to Mecca, which helped the population economically when the Ottomans constructed the Hejaz Railway linking Mecca with Istanbul in 1908.Jordan is a relatively-small, semi-arid, almost-landlocked country with an area of 89,342 km (34,495 sq mi) and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country.Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan that coexists with an indigenous Christian minority.In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967.