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Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant. as a wild or escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type.The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters. According to Schultes' and Anderson's descriptions, C.Near the head and foot of the shaman was a large leather basket and wooden bowl filled with 789g of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions.An international team demonstrated that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis.The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). ruderalis is short, branchless, and grows wild in central Asia.As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" drug strains from wide-leafed "indica" drug strains.Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites", true hermaphrodites (which are less common) bear staminate and pistillate structures together on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant. Cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. Breeders, seed companies, and cultivators of drug type Cannabis often describe the ancestry or gross phenotypic characteristics of cultivars by categorizing them as "pure indica", "mostly indica", "indica/sativa", "mostly sativa", or "pure sativa". Cannabis is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol, caffeine and tobacco.
The plant is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions northwest of the Himalayas. sativa proved too unwieldy, and never gained many adherents. and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions.
Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes. Mahlberg at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. In September 2005, New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.
This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis.
The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination.
This is the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent. 2200–1700 BCE in the Bactria and Margiana contained elaborate ritual structures with rooms containing everything needed for making drinks containing extracts from poppy (opium), hemp (cannabis), and ephedra (which contains ephedrine)."While we have no evidence of the use of ephedra among the steppe tribes, we have already seen that they did share in the cultic use of hemp, a practice that ranged from Romania east to the Yenisei River from at least the 3rd millennium BC onwards where its use was later encountered in the apparatus for smoking hemp found at Pazyryk." Cannabis is first referred to in Hindu Vedas between 20 BCE, in the Atharvaveda.However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late 20th century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars. In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa.This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus consists of a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. Professors William Emboden, Loran Anderson, and Harvard botanist Richard E. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow leaflets, C.