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*12-Nov-2017 22:10*

The limiting age is then calculated as -8033 * ln(2sigma) and rounded according to conventions outlined above.

Rachel Wood does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

Organic materials, which require the most processing, are limited to younger ages by their corresponding process blank.

Due to counting and measurement errors for the blanks and samples, statistical errors are higher for very old samples.

Although one can simply measure older samples for longer times, there are practical limits to the minimum sample activity that can be measured.

At the present time, for a 1 milligram sample of graphite, this limiting age is about ten half-lives, or 60,000 years, if set only by the sample size.

Fractionation must be corrected for in order to make use of radiocarbon measurements as a chronometric tool for all parts of the biosphere.

In order to remove the effects of isotopic fractionation, the Fraction Modern is then corrected to the value it would have if its original δC value to which all radiocarbon measurements are normalized.) The fractionation correction is done using the 13/12 ratio measured by the AMS system.

It should be noted that the reported error is an estimate of the precision (repeatability) of measurement for a single sample.Using this measurement also corrects for any mass-dependent fractionation within the AMS system.The Fraction Modern corrected for δC of a sample 10 separate times over the course of a run.Therefore a 1% error in fraction-modern leads to an 80 year error in the age.

Ages are rounded according to the convention of Stuiver & Polach, shown below.

This correction is performed as follows: $$Fm_ = Fm_ ( Fm_ - Fm_b)\frac$$ Where \(M\) is sample mass, and \(M_b\) and \(Fm_b\) are the mass and Fm of the blank.