We could, for example, conclude that there is a relationship.We might conclude that there is a positive relationship. We can assess the conclusion validity of each of these conclusions or inferences. Both could, for example, be caused by the same factor.For instance, virtually all social research involves measurement or observation.And, whenever we measure or observe we are concerned with whether we are measuring what we intend to measure or with how our observations are influenced by the circumstances in which they are made.In simpler terms, did we implement the program we intended to implement and did we measure the outcome we wanted to measure?
But when you show a ten-item paper-and-pencil self-esteem measure that you developed for that purpose, others can look at it and understand more clearly what you intend by the term self-esteem. They build on one another, with two of them (conclusion and internal) referring to the land of observation on the bottom of the figure, one of them (construct) emphasizing the linkages between the bottom and the top, and the last (external) being primarily concerned about the range of our theory on the top.
When we conduct research, we are continually flitting back and forth between these two realms, between what we think about the world and what is going on in it.