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Ethanol is also used as a clean-burning fuel source.
Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) for a compound consisting of alkyl group with two carbon atoms (prefix “eth-”), having a single bond between them (infix “-an-”), attached functional group −OH group (suffix “-ol”).
The ozone layer is recovering over Antarctica but thinning over highly populated areas, potentially exposing more than a billion people to harmful radiation, researchers have warned.
The hole in the protective layer has been closing over Antarctica since ozone-damaging chemicals were banned by the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty, in 1987, but scientists have found that it is thinning in the lower stratosphere above more densely populated parts of the globe.
It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks.
Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug.
It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant.
The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance utilized across many different kinds of manufacturing industries.
The Oxford English Dictionary claims that it is a medieval loan from Arabic al-kuḥl, a powdered ore of antimony used since antiquity as a cosmetic, and retained that meaning in Middle Latin.
Gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% anhydrous ethanol.
Hydrous ethanol (about 95% ethanol and 5% water) can be used as fuel in more than 90% of new gasoline fueled cars sold in the country.
In the United States, the ethanol fuel industry is based largely on corn.
According to the Renewable Fuels Association, as of 30 October 2007, 131 grain ethanol bio-refineries in the United States have the capacity to produce 7.0 billion US gallons (26,000,000 m Sweet sorghum is another potential source of ethanol, and is suitable for growing in dryland conditions.Absolute ethanol may inactivate microbes without destroying them because the alcohol is unable to fully permeate the microbe's membrane.Ethanol, often in high concentrations, is used to dissolve many water-insoluble medications and related compounds.The California Air Resources Board formalized this issue in 2008 by recognizing control standards for formaldehydes as an emissions control group, much like the conventional NOx and Reactive Organic Gases (ROGs).